What is diabetes?

What is diabetes?

When the amount of glucose in our blood rises, we call it diabetes. Blood glucose is the main source of energy in our body. We get this glucose from the foods we eat. Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas.

This insulin breaks down the glucose obtained from food and produces energy which is used by the cells of our body.

Sometimes our body cannot make enough insulin. Glucose then stays in our blood and does not reach our cells. Too much glucose in the blood can cause health problems.

Diabetes is a lifelong disease

The American Diabetes Association says that diabetes is a disease that can never be cured. But this disease can be easily controlled. Although there is no cure for diabetes, we can take steps to control it and stay healthy.

In today’s world, the number of diabetic patients is increasing day by day with the advancement of medical science.

Diabetes levels:

Blood glucose levels in humans are normal

fastingafter eating
3.3 to 6.9 ml.mol/L<7.8 ml.mol/L

The amount of glucose in the blood of a diabetic patient

fastingafter eating
7 ml.mol/L>11 ml.mol/L

That is if the amount of glucose in a person’s blood is 7 ml / mL when he is starving and> 11 ml / mL after a meal, then he is considered to have diabetes. Diabetes is usually referred to as diabetes mellitus.

Types of diabetes:

There are three types of diabetes:

  • Type-1 Diabetes
  • Type-2 Diabetes
  • and gestational diabetes.

Type-1 Diabetes

With type 1 diabetes, the insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas are destroyed. Therefore, the production of insulin in the body of patients with type 1 diabetes is very low. For this the patient has to take insulin injection to survive. Type-1 diabetes is mainly caused by genetics. Two genes, HLADR 3 and HLADR 4, are responsible for this.

Type-2 Diabetes

Insulin resistance is one of the major causes of type 2 diabetes. The type-2 patient cannot use the insulin that is produced in the body. This is dealt with first with the help of exercise and diet. However, many times oral medication is needed, even insulin injections.

This type of diabetes occurs after 40 years or so. Sweet and sugary drinks increase the risk of type-2. The type of fat in the diet also increases the risk of important saturated fats and trans-fatty acids while reducing the risk of poly-unsaturated and monounsaturated fats. Eating too much white rice also increases the risk of diabetes. Not exercising is also one of the causes of type-2 diabetes. More than 90 percent of the 246 million diabetics worldwide have type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes

Some women develop gestational diabetes when they become pregnant. Most of the time this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you have gestational diabetes, you are more likely to have type 2 diabetes later in life. Sometimes the diagnosis of gestational diabetes is actually type-2 diabetes.

Symptoms of diabetes

There are some common symptoms of diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, diabetes can be easily identified by paying attention to certain things. And as soon as diabetes can be identified, control measures must be taken. The symptoms of diabetes are:

  • Frequent urination
  • Getting thirsty
  • Frequent hunger after regular meals
  • Feeling very tired
  • Blurred vision
  • The cuts on different parts of the body do not heal easily
  • Weight loss despite eating
  • Pain in limbs or occasional fainting

Who is more likely to have type 2 diabetes?

If you are 40 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight, you are more likely to have type 2 diabetes. Certain health problems such as physical inactivity and high blood pressure also affect your chances of developing type-2 diabetes. If you have gestational diabetes before you become pregnant, you are also more likely to have type 2 diabetes. Learn more about the risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

Health problems in diabetes

Patients with diabetes may have the following health problems:

  • Heart disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Eye problems
  • Dental disease
  • Nerve damage
  • Foot problems